Carbon Assimilation and Modelling of the European Land Surfaces


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Minutes of the 4th CAMELS meeting
Met Office, Exeter, UK,
21st  22nd June 2004


Met Office: Peter Cox, Richard Betts, Venkata Jogireddy, Pete Falloon, Debbie Hemming
LSCE: Pierre Friedlingstein, Roger Dargaville, Diego Santeren
MPI-BGC: Jens Kattge
ALTERRA:  Isabel van der Wyngaert, Mart-Jan Schelhaas, Bart Kruijt
UNITUS: Dario Papale, Ilaria Palumbo
EFI: Ari Pussinen, Gert-Jan Nabuurs
CEH:  Chris Huntingford
JRC: Nadine Gobron


Wolfgang Knorr (MPI-BGC), Philippe Peylin, Andrew Friend, Philippe Ciais (LSCE), Martin Heimann (MPI-BGC), Ronald Hutjes (Alterra), Riccardo Valentini (UNITUS), Richard Harding (CEH), Thomas Kaminski (FastOpt), Michel Verstraete, Bernard Pinty (JRC)

Date of next meeting:  EFI, Helsinki, 27th  28th January 2005

1.    ACTIONS from 3nd meeting (11/11/03):
ACTION 2(a): RB to extend his methodology to year 2000 using remotely-sensed land cover.   DONE
ACTION 2(b): ALL MODELLING GROUPS to provide estimates of uncertainties, plus relevant citable literature, for their own internal parameters. DONE                                              
ACTION 3(a): ALTERRA to circulate a description of the available flux sites for linking to the CAMELS website, including distinction between the various flux site lists.  DONE
ACTION 3(b):  KT to provide link to N dep datasets (two snapshots).  DONE
ACTION 3(c):  Hadley (PC) to decide best way forward on N deposition dataset.  DONE
ACTION 3(d): EFI to provide link to inventory data for the historical period.  DONE
ACTION 3(e): Hadley(RB) to check for consistency between inventory data and land-use dataset.  ONGOING
ACTION 3(f): EFI to report on availability of regeneration rate (as a function of year), and harvesting rate (as a function of age-class and year).  DONE
ACTION 3(g): JRC to provide extra code for reading of the FAPAR timeseries when there is missing data.  DONE
ACTION 3(h): UNITUS to check on availability of FAPAR ground-based measurements from flux sites, for validation of JRC product. DONE
ACTION 3(i): MODELLING GROUPS to provide uncertainties on parameters, as agreed in the Paris sub-meeting.  DONE
ACTION 3(j): Hadley (RB) to check on the availability of climate data from Simon Tett's run, for model spin-up in WP3.  DONE
ACTION 3(k): LSCE (PF) to design the protocol for WP3 simulations, based on the discussion summarised in the minutes of the 3rd meeting.  ONGOING
ACTION 3(l): ALTERRA to collate WP1 annual report based on reports on deliverables from participating groups, and forward to RB (by mid Dec!)  DONE
ACTION 3(m): ALTERRA to write 2-3 page report on D1.1 (by end Nov) DONE
ACTION 3(n): LSCE to send 1-2 page report on D1.2 to ALTERRA  (by end Nov) DONE
ACTION 3(o): Hadley to send 2-3 page report on D1.3 to ALTERRA  (by end Nov) DONE
ACTION 3(p): EFI to send 2-3 page report on D1.4 to ALTERRA (by end Nov) DONE
ACTION 3(q): MPI-BGC to collate WP2 annual report based on estimates of measurement and model parameters uncertainties, and forward to RB (by mid-Dec) DONE
ACTION 3(r): Hadley to produce annual report based on reports on WP1 and WP2 (by end Dec). DONE
ACTION 3(s): MPI-BGC(JK) to lead on paper on "Use of eddy flux data to reduce uncertainties in TEM parameterisation" (for submission in July 04)  ONGOING
ACTION 3(t): CEH(CH) and ALTERRA (IvdW) to lead on paper on "Robustness of land-surface parameterisation within plant functional type" (for submission Nov 04).  ONGOING

2.       Progress on WP1

a.    Biome-specific datasets to drive and validate TEMs (ALTERRA)

The availability of data for 20 sites was discussed. Currently, the data for all 20 sites are available and this can be used in WP2. The detailed list of these sites will be presented in the CAMELS website.   Data is available at following formats:
    Flux and met data in netCDF,
    Site-information in ASCII,
    Soil and Vegetation data in Excel or ASCII.

b.    Atmospheric CO2 dataset for use in nowcasting system (LSCE)

The CO2  dataset is available . The historical dataset enabling the models to be run from 1900 to present is available for use in the WP3.  The contemporary dataset based on the AEROCARB project database is also available.

c.    Land-use and nitrogen deposition historical datasets 1900-2000 (Hadley)
RB informed the group that the land-use changes from 1900-2000 is available.  The extrapolation from 1990 to 2000 was obtained from the IMAGE team at RIVM.  This dataset will be used in WP3 and WP4 and also the C4MIP project. The protocol of WP3 is under preparation and the exact format and requirement of the land-use will be delineated once the protocol of WP3 is made.

The need for nitrogen deposition datasets is not yet been ascertained because none of the current CAMELS TEMs can utilise these (as they do not include interactive N cycling). PC informed the group that there are plans to include N effects in MOSES. However, based on the timescales available this has been put aside for time being.

ACTION 3(e): Hadley (RB) to check for consistency between inventory data and land-use

d.    Datasets of recent change in European land carbon (EFI)

Ari Pussinen presented forest inventory based C budgeting and its relations to TEMs. The budgeting technique described various input and output components of the C budgeting in Forest. The Decomposition component is difficult to quantify and results in uncertainties in that parameter. Similarly, the Felling and Removal rates are not consistently exist and result in the uncertainties in their quantifications. There was a discussion on the age class distribution in forest inventories. Based on the average wood harvest period of 7 years and computations of average age of the forest classes could be derived. There is a need for parameterisation of the averaging of forest inventory data.

M-JS presented products of inventory work. He presented the historic data on the trend of NBP in Europe. Over the years the total forest sector sinks has been increasing over Europe. There was a discussion on the exact nature of information required for the CAMELS especially WP2. M-JS and AP stated that the exact format of the data/information need for the WP2 are need to be notified to them so that they can prepare and supply the date in requested format. There were discussions on the handling of age-class effects, regeneration rate and harvest rates in the TEMs. Everybody felt that there is a need of parameterisation to include these in both TEMs and inventory data. RB suggested providing the forest inventory data ingGrid format. M-JS and AP stated that they have the information of forest inventory data on country wise and this required to be formatted on grid wise.  The difficulties in presenting the forest inventories in grid format were discussed.   The inclusion of crop and pasture as fractions in these datasets was also discussed. There is a need of that this land-use dataset should be checked for consistency with the EFI inventory data. M-JC presented that the eddy flux measurements on forest sites has been some what correlated with the NEP estimated using integrated methods. It was felt that the seasonal variations/natural disturbances also need to quantified in the forest inventory dataset.

ACTION 4(a): EFI (AP) to provide link to gridded data on fractional cover of forests (June 04)
ACTION 4(b): EFI (AP) to provide detailed land use inventory data (July 04)
ACTION 4(c): ALL MODELLING GROUPS to provide EFI with specific requirements from inventory data. (Aug 04)
 (July 04)

e.    Dataset of fAPAR for Europe, and other remote sensing products (JRC)
NG presented fAPAR products available for CAMELS. Following products are available for use by CAMELS.
    Two years of European window data are delivered on DVD.
    20 Camels site windows extracted available on CDs
    Code for reading data available on CDs
    Prototyped global products @ 0.5 x 0.5 degrees available
    Time series corresponding to in-situ measurements sites are extracted.
Excellent progress has been been made on both the fAPAR retrievals for the 20 flux sites and the global fAPAR dataset. NG described the computation involved in derivation of fAPAR. She discussed various problems associated with comparing fAPAR data with flux measurements and various spatial and temporal issues.

ACTION 4(d): JRC (NG) to provide FAPAR data in netCDF format (July 04)

3.        Progress on WP2
a.    TEM parameters and a priori estimates (MPI-BGC)
All modelling groups have completed the task of providing a list of TEM parameters and default values for these parameters, where possible along with a priori error bars based on citeable literature. This information has been published on First Annual Report.

b.    Preliminary parameter optimisation for ORCHIDEE including Bordeaux, Bray-site (LSCE)
DS presented his results on optimisation of ORCHIDEE using a Bayesian cost function. The optimisation was shown to improve the fit to the amplitude of the daily cycle in the CO2 and H2O fluxes. However, the optimisation algorithm appeared to be stopping short of the global minimum error. There was a discussion on quantifying the seasonal variations.

RD also described his work optimising the Biosphere Parameters with TURC and LMDz. TURC is a simple toy model of TEM. TURC is built on a simple modelling framework to model carbon cycle. A total of 23 parameters for each region have been optimised using the flux based measurements. Two approaches have been described for identifying the minima of parameters. These are the perturbation approach (which uses the cost function gradient calculation by running model with parameter set and then perturbs the parameters.) and the adjoint approach (which is the direct calculation of the cost function gradient for set of parameters). Comparison of model output and observations provide a reasonable good fit of the model with parameters.

c.    Preliminary parameter optimisation for MOSES (CEH, Hadley)
PC described optimisation of MOSES for Loobos site. A simple optimisation routine had been used to optimise MOSES parameters associated with leaf-level photosynthesis, stomatal conductance and soil water stress. PC explained that there is a systematic error since the model is based on the Sellers big-leaf scaling-up from leaf to canopy. PC described the work which is underway at Hadley to replace this part of MOSES with a more explicit treatment of canopy radiation absorption, which at least recognises separate light-limited and non-light-limited leaf classes.

d.    Monte Carlo simulations with BETHY  (MPI-BGC)
JK described work at MPI-BGC on the use of a Bayesian approach and the Metropolis Monte Carlo method to estimate parameter PDFs for BETHY. This work was carried out initially for the Loobos coniferous forest site and later extended with all PFTs irrespective of regions. There was a discussion on the strategy to be adopted by all modelling groups in arriving better quantifying uncertainties in the parameters. PC suggested all modelling groups should initially use the Loobos and Bray sites flux data in parameter optimisation and calibration of model. It was agreed that the WP2 leader should coordinate with all modelling groups so that all modelling groups should finish the calibration of models by end of Sep-2004 for these two sites.

ACTION 4(e): MPI-BGC (JK) to provide protocol on optimisation (July 04)

ACTION 4(f): ALL MODELLING GROUPS to complete optimisation runs for LeBray and Loobos (October 04)

4    Progress on WP5
a.    Update on the CAMELS website (Hadley)
VJ presented the CAMELS Website. A fully-fledged website www.camels.org.co.uk has been operational since February 2004. This web site will be used for information exchange between various groups in CAMELS project and also monitoring the progress of the various work packages under the CAMELS. All the minutes and actions will be published in the website. VJ informed that all camel groups should feel free to provide any information which needs to be published in the website.  VJ requested all CAMEL group members to provide a list of contributors to be included in the Website. VJ requested all WP group leaders provide the information about their work to publish in a quarterly CAMELS newsletter.

ACTION 4(g): EFI (M-J S) to provide VJ with web pages on inventory data and methods

b.    Flux and Meteorology Database (UNITUS)
DP presented the quality measures for the flux and Meteorology data under Carboeurope. He explained the importance of the gap filling and data adjustment methodology adapted to correct flux and Met data. He has provided the flux and Met data on CDs to all CAMEL groups. The latest data of the flux and met data can be downloadable from following website http://gaia.agraria.unitis.it/database

c.    Plans for CAMELS brochure at end of 2nd year (UNITUS)
PC informed that CAMELS brochure will be published after second annual report. He informed that he will review this with RV so that this brochure will be published with carbo-europe machinery.

DP informed that COP10 is scheduled to meet during December 2004 and inputs from CAMELS would be presented.

ACTION 4(h): UNITUS (RV) to coordinate brochure for COP10 based on WP reports for 2nd Annual report (Oct 04)

5    Plans for WP3

a.    Modelling of the 20th Century Land Carbon Balance
PF presented the outline of different tasks in WP 3. There was discussion on the number of simulations to be carried out using TEMs.  It was agreed that the simulations would use prior parameters without land use changes and with land use changes. Later simulation could use the calibrated models with same set of conditions. These simulations will be carried out at global scale. Simulations of Kyoto versus non-Kyoto sinks will be carried at European scale. PF will provide a detailed protocol for WP3 and the various datasets required for WP3 and data assimilations.  PF will provide inverse estimates in WP3.  Met Office will provide the CRU climate data would be suitable for the historical simulations.

ACTION 3(k): LSCE (PF) to design the protocol for WP3 simulations, based on the discussion summarised in the minutes of the 3rd meeting. 

ACTION 4(i): LSCE (PF) to circulate protocol for WP3 simulations (Sept 04)

ACTION 4(j): Hadley/CEH (VJ/CH) to circulate climatic driving data for WP3 simulations (July 04)

ACTION 4(k): LSCE (RG) to provide flux estimates from inverse models for comparison with forward models (Mar 05)

ACTION 4(l): ALL MODELLING GROUPS to perform offline simulations of 20th century carbon balance with a priori and a postiori parameter sets (March 05)

6    Plans for WP4

a.    Carbon Cycle Data Assimilation System (Hadley)
PC  presented progress and plans for CCDAS. Met Office will provide driving Met data for TEMs.  Offline simulations will be carried out on the European land carbon sink. These simulations are similar to the simulations of WP3.  WP3 will provide inverse estimates which will be inputs for the CCDAS.

ACTION 4(m): EFI (AP) to provide flux estimates and uncertainties from inventory data for CCDAS

7    Any other business

a.    Annual Report
RB stated that the second annual report will need to be published by Oct-2004. All group leaders should produce reports by the end of August 2004 and submit them to WP leaders. WP leaders will consolidate these reports and produce a WP report by end of Sep-2004 and submit to RB. Hadley will write the management report, and put together the scientific report based on WP reports by end of Oct-2004.

ACTION 4(n): Hadley (RB) to circulate link to CAMELS Technological Implementation Plan (June 04)
ACTION 4(o): JRC (NG) to write 1-2 page report on D1.5 and forward to RH for WP1 final report (Aug 04)
ACTION 4(p): Hadley (RB) to write 1-2 page report on consistency between historical land use datasets and inventory data and forward to RH for WP1 final report (Aug 04)
ACTION 4(q): EFI (AP) to write 1-2 page report on work inventory data for WP1 (Aug 04)
ACTION 4(r): ALL MODELLING GROUPS to write 1-2 page report on work on parameter uncertainties and forward to JK for WP2 annual report (Aug 04)
ACTION 4(s): Hadley (VJ) to write 1-2 page report on climatic driving data for WP3 simulations, and forward to PC for WP4 annual report (Aug 04)
ACTION 4(t): ALTERRA (RH) to write WP1 final report and forward to RB and RV (Sep 04)
ACTION 4(u): MPI-BGC (JK) to write WP2 annual report and forward to RB and RV (Sep 04)
ACTION 4(v): LSCE (PF) to write WP3 annual report, including plans for WP3 and draft protocol for simulations, and forward to RB and RV (Sep 04)
ACTION 4(w): Hadley (PC) to write WP4 annual report, detailing plans for WP4, and forward to RB and RV (Sep 04)
ACTION 4(x): Hadley (RB) to edit 2nd Annual project report and submit to EU (Oct 04)

b.    CAMELS Publications

There was a discussion of the 2 possible early CAMELS publications.   JK suggested that the MPI-led paper on using eddy flux data to reduce uncertainties in TEMs could be achieved by end fo this year or early next year. There was a concern about the calibration of the different Models. Different TEMs are currently using different cost functions and different optimisation techniques in uncertainty quantifications. There was a need for adoption of common cost function by different models. It was agreed that all models should complete the calibration using Loobos and Bray sites by end of Sep-2004 and that a teleconference would be held to begin work on the paper.

ACTION 4(y): MPI-BGC (JK) to hold WP2 meeting/teleconference to prepare for joint paper. (end Oct 04)

ACTION 3(s): MPI-BGC(JK) to lead on paper on Use of eddy flux data to reduce uncertainties in TEM parameterisation (for submission in December 04).

ACTION 3(t): CEH(CH) and ALTERRA (IvdW) to lead on paper on Robustness of land-
surface parameterisation within plant functional type (for submission March 05).

Meeting closed:  3pm on 22nd June
H) and ALTERRA (IvdW) to lead on paper on Robustness of land-
surface parameterisation within plant functional type (for submission March 05).

Meeting closed:  3pm on 22nd June